American Indian Communities in Minnesota - White Earth Band

American Indian Communities in Minnesota
White Earth Band

Reservation Area: 837,120 acres

Tribal Land: 56,116 acres

Tribal Enrollment: 20,852 (1995)

Communities: White Earth (tribal headquarters), Callaway, Ogema, Waubun, Mahnomen and Bejou.

Number of Residents: 4,546 (1995)


The reservation was established by treaty in 1867. The Clapp Amendment of 1906 reduced land transfer restrictions, leading to significant acreage loss for the tribe. The White Earth Land Recovery Project, a nonprofit advocacy group, works to rebuild the land base through contesting government-owned lands on the reservation and promoting other alternatives to do so. The Band is part of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.


Type of Government: Representative government though the five-member Tribal Council, serving four-year staggered terms.

Election Process: Enrolled tribal members elect council members. Those not living on the reservation may vote through absentee ballots.

Employment (1995)

Labor Force: 1,910

Unemployment: 55%

Economic Development

Tribal Businesses: Manitok Marketing Program, casinos, White Earth Garment Manufacturing Company, Ojibway Lumber and Building Supply, joint ownership of Manitok Mall, limousine company

Other Businesses: Wild rice mill, Waubun Steel, trucking companies, limousine company, construction related businesses

School Attendance

Circle of Life School Enrollment


Elementary (K-6): 187

Junior High (7-8): 44

High School (9-12): 84

Public schools (1997-1998):

Pine Point: 59

Waubun: 402

Mahnomen: 471

Health Care (1994)

Number of Clinics: 1

Number of Doctors: 3.0 (FTE)


Number: 1- Shooting Star Casino, Mahnomen

Next Page | Table of Contents | Senate Counsel & Research home page