Georgia Redistricting Cases:  the 1990s

Johnson v. Miller864 F. Supp. 1354 (S.D. Ga. 1994), aff'd sub nom. Miller v. Johnson, 515 U.S. 900 (1995) ("Johnson I")

Congressional District 11 - 1992

In Johnson I, the 11th congressional district was declared unconstitutional as a racial gerrymander. The Georgia General Assembly was unable to agree on a new plan in the 1995 special session, although they did reapportion the House and Senate on the correct theory that such plans were infected with the same unconstitutional elements.

Johnson v. Miller922 F. Supp. 1552 (S.D. Ga. 1995) and 922 F. Supp. 1556 (S.D. Ga. 1995) ("Johnson II"), aff'd sub nom. Abrahms v. Johnson, 117 S. Ct. 1925 (1997)

In Johnson II, the remedy case, the district court had to draw a new plan and in the process declared the 2nd congressional unconstitutional for the same reasons as in Johnson I. The new plan had one instead of three minority districts, although it had two influence districts. This map was affirmed by the Supreme Court.

Congressional District 4 - 1996

Johnson v. MillerNo. CV196-040 (N.D. Ga., complaint filed _________, 1996) ("Johnson III")

In Johnson III in 1996, Georgia was also sued over its state house and senate districting plans as passed in the 1995 special session. The plaintiffs argued that the legislative remedy did not go far enough in eliminating unconstitutional racial gerrymanders and the Justice Department argued that it went too far. That case was settled by consent order between the parties after court ordered mediation. The agreed upon plan reduced the number of minority districts and was passed by the General Assembly and precleared by the Justice Department.

United States v. GeorgiaNo. 1:96-CV-700-JTC (N.D. Ga., complaint filed ________, 199_)

The United States sued to enjoin Georgia from implementing the "unprecleared" 1995 special session House and Senate plans. They won the preliminary injunction, but the case ultimately became moot with the consent order in Johnson III and the resulting preclearance.

 State Contacts
Linda Meggars 
Reapportionment Services Unit 
Legislative Office Building, Suite 407 
Atlanta, GA 30334 
404/656-5063 voice

Sewell R. Brumby 
Legislative Counsel 
Office of Legislative Counsel 
316 State Capitol 
Atlanta, GA 30334 
404/656-5000 voice 
404/651-9292 fax